This keeps the seed from germinating until there is a good moisture supply early in the spring. Frost seeding is a popular option to improve forage yield and quality of pasture and hay land. Undersander, D.J., M.D. Although legumes are the most successful for this system, some grasses can also be successfully frost seeded. More aggressive tillage will better mix and dilute the toxins. Typical winter annual species developing legume seedlings. Interseeding involves using a no-till drill to aid in the incorporation of a legume or a more productive grass into an existing pasture sod. Available at: Morrison, J. Prepare your soil. The information The main advantage to frost seeding is the ability to establish desirable species into an undisturbed sod at a low per acre cost. There are some noteworthy advantages to fall seeding; however, you do have the option of seeding in the spring or in the fall. Re: Overseeding a mostly grass hay field in Ky in reply to Reid1650, 02-20-2013 18:25:02 Orchardgrass and Timothy with Red Clover the first week or two of March, chain harrow if possable. Introduced I plant every year, and have had only a couple of minor failures. “It’s just good to know where you’re at,” … "When it's time to plant, drill the seed and wait for the rain. A 60% to 70% frost seeding establishment rate has been reported by many farmers (Undersander, 2006). A productive pasture is contingent upon a good plan, careful management, and clear goals. Reseeding can be necessary to increase nutritional value, eradicate weeds, fill in bare spots, and improve the stand after disease problems or poor management. To begin, fall grazing or mowing down to a 2-inch height will slow regrowth of the existing stand in the spring. A number of drills are available that can be used in sod-seeding efforts. Frost seeding can be done over a thin layer of snow. “I … The best species to select depends on the goal one has for the field. Other legumes, such as white clover and birdsfoot trefoil, also can be frost seeded but with less success than red clover. For example, if perennial weeds caused a significant reduction in the stand then the weeds must be controlled before reseeding. Lone Spruce farm 3,729 views. Once the regrowth following hay harvest is 10-12 inches tall, grazing can begin. Ryegrass and orchardgrass will contribute to forage yields in the seeding year while bromegrass will need a full season before plants become productive. However, take care to avoid overgrazing which can result in young seedlings being consumed before adequate establishment. Frost seeding works best with legumes and grasses that germinate fast and at cool temperatures. All of these forages can be used success-fully for hay. Birdsfoot trefoil is less successful due to slow establishment. Interseeding research has been conducted in many parts of the U.S. and around the world. Legumes interseeded into grass sod should increase pasture yield, improve forage quality, and eliminate or minimize need for nitrogen fertilizer. The main advantage to frost seeding is the ability to establish desirable species into an undisturbed sod at a low per acre cost. If the no-till seeding is a hay field, harvest it for hay early to give the young plants an opportunity to compete with the established plants in the stand. This process for evaluating forage supply and ... spring, summer, fall or winter, depending on their management. The success of frost seeding establishment can be increased by following the key steps outlined below. Another option is to take a spring hay cutting before returning to full grazing. Available at: Undersander, D. 2006. If seeded as a mixture, this difference in seed weight will result in alternating strips of grass and legume plants. This timing works well in areas that receive good snow cover and do not experience prolonged winter thaws. Hay. Traditionally, seeding is thought of as a spring activity. He also says that overseeding in alfalfa, either with another forage or more alfalfa, is never a good idea. If you have an existing stand that just needs a pick-me-up, adding legumes that will provide plenty of nutrition through the dry summer months may be what you need. A second application of 40 to 50 lbs. Broadcast your seed, then roll it with a cultipacker (that's the roller w/o teeth)BTW, october is too late to plant alfalfa. The seeds will wait. Typically, ryegrasses will not overwinter in most northern areas, but can be overwintered in other regions; therefore, on these farms, ryegrasses should be seeded with the intent of meeting single season forage needs. Frost seeding is a popular option to improve forage yield and quality of pasture and hay land. University of Minnesota Extension bulletin. Of the grasses, perennial ryegrass and orchardgrass frost seed with the greatest success (Morrison, 2009); bromegrass has intermediate success; reed canary and timothy have the least success. Opening of the grass sod, shallow seed placement, and seed coverage are required. State & National Extension Partners. Pasture and Hay for Horses’ 2002. Although not always necessary, cattle (through tromping) or disking can improve soil-to-seed contact. Virginia Cooperative Extension bulletin, Culpeper County, VA. Although an annual, ranchers in the southeast U.S. depend on it for its reseeding ability, resulting in "volunteer" stands of annual ryegrass from year to year once the seed bank is established. Grass/perennial peanut mixed pasture in Calhoun County with cool season ‘Attain’ ryegrass forage no-till drilled in mid-October. 2150 Beardshear Hall Alfalfa does not frost seed well because its germination is variable at cool temperatures. It is important to realize that hay … Alternatives to seeding with machinery exist. Many farmers frost seed 25% of their acreage each year so that they are spreading their risk over different years. The effectiveness of overseeding, whether done in the spring or fall, is enhanced when it is combined with lawn aeration.The process of extracting small cores of soil from the lawn is also called core aeration. ISU Extension and Outreach It is important to determine the reason behind the need for reseeding. The optimum practice is to seed early in the spring after the snow is gone but while the ground is still frozen. pasture, crop aftermath, hay and grain produced for feed. Madison, WI. Frost seeding involves spreading forage seed on existing pastures during the late winter or very early spring while the ground is still frozen. When you get rain, you'll have grass. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Drills vary in their effectiveness based on ability to penetrate sod, provide uniform seed depth and metering, and ability to cover furrow. For more information, refer to eOrganic's articles on organic certification. Wheat (winter, spring) A x x x x x 75-150 0.5-1.5" 13000 cool 1 1-3 PERENNIAL WARM-SEASON GRASSES Big Bluestem P x x x x 10 M 140000 mod 5+ 3 Indiangrass P x x x x 10 M 185000 mod 5+ 2 Frost seeding does not work on sandy soils where there is no swelling and shrinking associated with the freeze-thaw cycle. Many restoration projects are completed in the summer and require fall seeding. Contact herbicides are sometimes also used to temporarily further reduce competition from plants present in the stand. Spring is always a busy season on the ranch, so it's best to plan for where you're headed and what you need to get done. Interseeding offers an opportunity for improving pasture productivity too. This is more effective and more safely done without snow cover. Overseeding of pasture or hay land with cool season annual legumes and grasses and with perennial legumes can be made much later in sod than in prepared seedbeds because the existing sod provides protection for the developing seedlings during the winter. This has been an unusual end to the winter, so as soon as the snow melts, frost seeding can begin. As shown, in the figure below, average first cutting yields of grasses the spring after late summer seeding, when harvested at the boot stage, ranged from 1.5 t/a for some grasses down to less than 0.5 t/a on first cutting depending on when they were sown the previous fall. Frost Seeding Red Clover in Hay Fields and Pastures By Dan Hudson / March 20, 2013 / Comments Off on Frost Seeding Red Clover in Hay Fields and Pastures Sugaring season is here, and that means that it is also time to frost-seed red clover in your pastures and hay fields if you have it in your mind to do it at all. Figure 1. Ames, IA 50011-2031 Hay and pasture. All rights reserved. Test your soil to determine pH and nutrient levels. Here are some spring jobs to think about. Reducing competition from the existing stand will help the new seedlings establish. To increase this method's success, spread seed on the thinnest pasture sod areas first and on areas where bare soil has been exposed due to heavy grazing or disturbance. Because ryegrass is longer-lived, a third application of 40 to 50 lbs. of N per acre should be applied in mid-winter to increase winter and spring forage production. The best candidate for frost seeding is the “run out” field. After seeding, grazing or mowing the field when it is 6 to 8 inches tall will allow for better light penetration to the new seedlings. Producers wanting to add to or improve the forage species in their existing pastures should typically consider using either the frost seeding method in February and early March, or interseeding later in the spring months. University of New Hampshire fact sheets ‘Hay and Haylage Production with Selected Forage Species’, and ‘Pasture Production with Selected Forage Subscribe to receive email alerts when new information is posted. Spring is the perfect time for pasture improvement. You'd be better off waiting until spring for the alfalfa seed. Red and white clovers are the most effective for establishment (Callan, 2010). Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a cool-season grass that originated in southern Europe.It is sometimes called Italian ryegrass. Harrow the pasture to break up manure, old hay piles, etc. Links to this article are strongly encouraged, and this article may be republished Freeze-thaw cycles then provide shallow coverage of the seed, which help shield from early spring rains. The more efficient seed placement provided by a no-till drill allows many of our more productive perennial forage grasses to also be successfully established by interseeding. There are several benefits to adding legumes to pastures including higher quality forage as well as nitrogen to support grass growth. * March and early April are generally a good time to overseed as long as you have several days of thawing and freezing. One common misconception about frost seeding is that spreading the seed on top of snow works best. Use only labeled herbicides for sod suppression, and follow label instructions. University of Wisconsin Extension bulletin. Callan, P. 2010. Frost seeding of forages. Casler, and D.C. West. Photo credit: Jon Zirkle, Michigan State University Extension. Seed-to-soil contact is critical to the success of frost seeding. However, weather permitting, Tennessee farmer Cardin overseeds the bare spots in his fescue hay fields with more fescue and possibly wheat. ... An attempt to bring back an old hay field - Duration: 22:51. (800) 262-3804, Iowa State University Invest in a soil analysis before planting. Freeze-thaw cycles then provide shallow coverage of the seed, which help shield from early spring rains. the author is required. Frost seeding is an economical method of improving pasture and hay fields by broadcasting the seed on frozen ground. Frost seeding involves spreading forage seed on existing pastures during the late winter or very early spring while the ground is still frozen. Note: Timothy and Reed Canarygrass are not recommended. The key steps to success include good seed-to-soil contact, early seeding at the appropriate time for your climate, proper species selection, and reducing competition. Interseeding is normally done from mid-March through early May, when soil moisture and temperature are more suitable for rapid seedling establishment. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach field agronomist. Equipment limitations for sod seeding implements sometimes are overcome by operator experience and home shop modifications. One of the main hesitations growers have is a lack of information regarding overseeding cool-season forages into dormant grass/legume systems. Stay away from Fescue in hayfield I only know of one horse person that has fescue on purpose. Areas with bare or exposed soil across a field are ideal candidates for frost seeding. White Clover- This is a low-growing short lived perennial. The repeated freezing and thawing will cause some of the seed to fall into soil cracks and germinate. Most legumes need good drainage, pH, fertility and species-specific harvest management for pasture halage or hay. forage in spring before the warm-season grasses become productive. Forage demand/supply relationships should be evaluated in both short- and long-term plans, allowing for emergency periods such as drought. Closely grazing or mowing pastures in the fall will also help to expose the soil. Available at. It shouldn't come as a surprise that the conclusions from these efforts all point to several very important issues that must be met for successful interseedings. Always check with your organic certification agency before adopting new practices or using new materials. Legumes are the most successful for this system as they tend to be rounded, dense and most importantly, they -germinate at lower temperatures so will begin growth early in the spring. If this article is to be used in any other manner, permission from Available at: Rankin, M. 2011. Close grazing in the fall or spring, ahead of interseeding, will help to reduce sod competition. In fact, planting should be delayed until about October 15 th in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont. 2001. Since grass seed is light, it will not throw as far as heavier legume seeds when broadcast. As the ground freezes and thaws, it opens and closes allowing the seed to be incorporated into the soil. Photo courtesy of Daniel Leonard. Crop Sciences Department, Urbana, IL. Recommended species and seeding rates are shown in Table 1. Frost seeding can also be done in December once growth has stopped for the year and before snowfall. When frost seeding with a broadcast seeder, make sure to first determine the effective seeding width to avoid possible overlap of seed. University of Illinois Extension & Outreach Illinois Agronomy Handbook Chapter 6. of N per acre may be needed in early spring when ryegrass is used for late spring grazing, hay, or as a silage crop. It is a good option for frost seeding, so in the next month, we can spread this seed on pastures or hay fields. Overseeding the Little Hay Field crslyrn. The principle of frost seeding is to broadcast forage seed in the early spring when the ground freezes at night and thaws during the day. This article was originally published on March 6, 2019. manent pasture or hayfield, producers have to decide which cool-season grass to use. without further permission if published as written and if credit is given to the author, Integrated Crop Management News, Frost seeding is the easiest method to add new forage legumes or grasses to pastures, and is likely the least expensive method, as well. contained within may not be the most current and accurate depending on when it is accessed. Frost seeding is often done with seeders mounted on ATVs, or a tractor-mounted or handheld broadcast seeder (see Figure 1). Frost seeding forages into established pastures. In the Mountains, the fall … For more information, please contact your local Iowa State University Extension and Outreach field agronomist. Periodic frost seeding will help maintain high quality forages. For bermudagrass, Redfearn recommends patience. Use a method (i.e. A few well researched steps will improve the success of frost seeding. (Bonus points for finding lost shoes, fly masks and halters!) Methods to improve old unproductive pastures and hayfields that are both effective and economical are a common challenge for farmers, and especially so for new and beginning farmers. Frost seeding to improve pasture quality. Interseeding success depends a lot on paying attention to details, timeliness, careful management of sod completion, controlling seeding depth to no deeper than one-fourth to one-half inch, and a little bit of luck with weather. Those steps, seeding rates and guidelines are available in the ISU Extension and Outreach publication Improving Pasture by Frost Seeding. If it is feasible to harvest the spring growth as hay, this is another option for allowing plants to develop a sufficient root system before grazing. Therefore, seeding the species separately will result in a more even distribution of grasses and legumes. Red clover has been the Iowa forage species of choice for frost seeding. I've done it like this with horse pastures: Mow it real short, then pull a spring tooth harrow across the field to open it up a little. A no-till drill can also be used but this will increase the number of trips across the field. In general, frost seeding does not work as well with grasses. Welcome to the public website of eOrganic, the Organic Agriculture Community of eXtension, Funding for eOrganic is provided by USDA NIFA and other grant programs including Western SARE, http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/news/dairy/2011/01-01/dp_2011-01-01_1.html, http://extension.cropsci.illinois.edu/handbook/pdfs/chapter06.pdf, https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/forage/frost-seeding-of-forages/. White clovers are the most current and accurate depending on their management germinating until there a! This timing works well in areas that receive good snow cover and do not experience prolonged winter thaws in. 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