Forced Medical Examinations. [3] [15] Any worker was easily replaced with another of any age, or machine in some cases, to do the life-threatening industrial work for an incredibly low wage. [20] The Victorian upper class consisted of the king and queen, aristocrats, nobles, dukes, and other wealthy families of the Victorian court. The middle class before the start of Victorian Era was a very small class, and over the time period of the Victorian Era it grew to be very large. During the Victorian Era, the social class system of that time rigidly defined the role of women. [26] [1] Marriage Source 1 " barely conscious of class beyond a recognition that the 'masters' constitute a different order of society into which they will never penetrate." We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Several Victorian painters and artists have their work carefully preserved in museums. [21] A middle class family could anticipate spending over half their salary on food, while a considerable percentage of the population faced unemployment or a meager income, surviving on bread, drippings, tea, scraps, etc. [4] Capitalists, for example, employed industrial workers, who were one component of the working classes (each class included a wide range of occupations of varying status and income; there was a large gap, for example, between skilled and unskilled labor), but beneath the industrial workers was a submerged "under class" sometimes referred to as the "sunken people," which lived in poverty. The working class were the worst effected by the Industrial Revolution and the Victorian Era. The customs and etiquette expected of men, and especially women, were rigid during much of the Victorian era. [4] [16] [2] The squalid and unsanitary conditions that were brought on by immense overcrowding made life very dismal for poor Victorian children and their families. [19] Woman pregnancy was very dangerous during the Victorian era. Charles Dickens Tried To Save Fallen Women. [26], A comprehensive Victorian Children history guide with facts and information on how the Victorian times impacted children in work, play, education and home life. The poor Victorian Children lived in much smaller accommodations than the rich children did. [3] The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. [9] [11] - At an early age the children would be out looking for work or roaming the streets looking for odd jobs. With too few jobs to accompany the rush of factory hands, working conditions plummeted. This quickly made them into the lower class citizens as there were very few jobs that they were capable of finding at this time. Both upper class men and women of the Victorian Era dressed lavishly in the daytime and even more extravagantly at night, while lower class men and women wore … [15] [7] For instance, one woman would work with the family business, while another woman might have the life of some upper class women, and not have to work much at all. [15] This was called the Victorian Era because Queen Victoria was in control. This post will discuss transportation in the Victorian Era and how it divided the classes. Some of the increasingly powerful upper middle class categories secured their places in this upper class. 2. [4], The regular Victorian Era boy in the middle class would not have a great education unless he went to a public school. This quickly made them into the lower class citizens as there were very few jobs that they were capable of finding at this time. Here, Anna Maria Barry highlights five fascinating 19th-century performers who had a lasting influence on the world of show business Domestic servants in Victorian Hastings "On the Side of the Maids" — an 1874 account of a maid's hard life "Maid in England" — the life of the Victorian domestic servant (Public Record Office exhibition) Women of the 'lower' working class in Hastings; Underclasses. [16] The long, parted section of the back earned the name "cut-away" in the UK, "tails" in the USA. Pride The Victorian Era is marked by Queen Victoria’s reign in England from 1837-1901 (Eras of Elegance). Lower Level Middle Class - These were the people who worked on the orders of the higher level middle class people. The lower working class were distinguished from the upper by having less education, no pretensions to gentility, fewer resources or opportunities and, in some cases, simply less luck. [20] [11] The Victorian Era provided a very successful time period for the middle class. In 1847, Charles Dickens, together with a millionaire heiress and philanthropist named Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, decided to pay for the establishment of Urania Cottage. These changes mainly affected the lower and middle classes, but they did affect the upper class a little. In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. [3] This was the highest social class of the Victorian England social hierarchy. [10] Museums in London like V&A museum, Tate modern have several artifacts that show the art and fashion in Victorian England. [3], Four main classes existed: the nobility and gentry at the top of the ladder, trailed by the middle class (often these two are combined to cover the "upper class" in general), and then the "upper" working class, swiftly followed by the poorest of the poor, the "lower" working class (again, these latter two are often combined to form the "lower class" as a whole). Even though members of this class held jobs, they were considered part of the Lower Class. [4] As the Victorian era was based on the principles of gender, race and class. [20] Housing According to Source 1, the working class house was usually sandwiched between other houses. Photograph showing a Victorian family at work making trousers. Few eras in history can evoke such ideas of contrast between the lives of different people as that of the Victorian era of 1837-1901 in Britain. Throughout the Victorian Era, there were four main social classes. [12] In the working class home, mothers gave birth to their children at home with a mid-wife rather than a doctor. A girl in the lower class, from ages 12 to 18, was paid 20 pounds; a girl in the middle class, of the same ages, was paid 100 pounds; and a girl of the upper class, 12 years old, was paid 400 pounds per job. [15] To a normal person, a person might think that a woman in this class would do very little, but they actually did a lot. During the Victorian Era women struggled to fulfill their desires and men encountered women to get only what was necessary for the household, trying to escape from responsibility they go onto the direction that their impulse takes them, however not for long, after a dream of having what they long for they still have to face reality of being a wife and mother. This was the highest social class of the Victorian England social hierarchy. The problem with the Victorian era is that there were very few families that had relatively nice homes, enough to eat on, and a decently successful career. [4], The women in the working class had almost no leisure time because the men and total control of their money to spend, and they often spent it, and the women were rarely allowed to participate in leisure activities outside of their household (Johnson). [16] [19] [11] [6], Other jobs like working on the railroad was also an option for Lower Class workers. The lower class had become completely shut from the political process. [9] Neck-line Bertha is the low shoulder neck-line worn by women during the Victorian Era. [11] Some jobs for the middle class citizens during Victorian England were teachers and doctors. There were some changes in social class system during this era as compared to the traditional social class system of England. [4] At the start of the Victorian era (1830s-1900), English society was highly stratified and hierarchical, and the population fell into three main classes. MATCHSTICK MAKERS. During that time Britain consists of four classes: the. These radical middle class ideals eventually spread to the not-quite-so-poor as well. [4] [7] [2] Some of the workers during Victorian England, that would be equal in skill to another person in their class, would both be doing the same job, but one might prosper, while the other might not do well at all. Middle Uppe… The life of a middle class woman was similar to the life of an upper class woman, but it was not as luxurious as an upper class woman's life. [2] Terms & Conditions  | Many coats in the Victorian Era were long and stretched all the way down to your knees. Social Classes. Although it was a peaceful and prosperous time, there were still issues within the social structure. Other people were migrating to England and creating less job opportunities for all the people living in the lower class. [16] [7] [4] [26] The unskilled workers were placed way below the skilled workers in the social scale and were vulnerable to exploitation ("Victorian Era Social Classes"). [3], The middle class, on the other hand, had a very successful time in the Victorian era. [4] [9] [12] Education Although education was for the privileged, around two thirds of the children in the working class population attended Sunday school. [1] The goal of these middle class women was to marry into a wealthy relationship. [5] [12] [4] [12] [17] An unmarried woman of this class often spent a lot of time with other unmarried women of their same social class. While the women of the upper class busied themselves with following the proper protocol in selecting a suitor, the working-class mother found herself scrounging to make ends meet. Middle class women can almost be considered guides to the lower class women. The lowest among the social hierarchy were the working class. [19] Along with those, the streets were also a place for theft, sickness, and musk from the local factories. How was Victorian poor and middle class Life? [4] The risk of death was more concerning to the lower class women. [19] The Victorian Era: Social Classes 1837- 1901 2. Despite the clean-sounding name, this job actually involved collecting dog feces from the streets of London to sell to tanners, who used it in the leather-making process. These were the first political parties in England who dominated the political field throughout the Victorian reign. This was the, The Class Structure in the Victorian Era. [17] [2] These also depict the landscapes, battles and life in general in Victorian society. EDUCATION VICTORIAN STYLE Education was an extremely controversial issue in the Victorian Era. [26] Outline of Marriage in the Victorian Era In the Victorian era, marriage was not as romanticized or fairytale-like as depicted in many novels of the time. [12] [21] As stated by Gaskell in the beginning of Ruth, walking was the common way of transportation in the Victorian Era. Toshers made their living down in the dark sewers, sifting through raw sewage to find any valuables that had fallen down the drain. [3] [4] This affected the wages that the lower class people received and the people could barely support themselves. In the Victorian era, this work was mainly performed by teenage girls who worked in terrible conditions, often for between 12 and 16 hours a day with few breaks. [2] [4] The lowest among the social hierarchy were the working class. Prostitution in Victorian Britain was a prevalent and often well earning business, with streets and streets dedicated to its work. -Their foods were limited and low in quantity as well as quality. [7] The Victorian Era in Britain was dominated by the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). [13] Women of every class came together to stand against the injustice and inequality of the voting system and to lobby for their right to vote. [15] [25] Once women married, Jalland notes, even upper class women risked death in giving birth. Regardless of class standing, the lack of refrigeration was a burden shared by all in the Victorian period. Poverty and crime were connected during the Victorian era and the justification of crime between the middle class and working class was different. [19], In Victorian England, the lower classes, the skilled workmen and the impoverished under class, were excluded from the political process and not given equal educational opportunities as those of the middle and elite. [19] Prostitute Sporting Guides. [4] The lower class included seamstresses, washerwomen, farm, factory, and mine workers, and domestic servants. [17] [4] [15] This working class was further categorised as the skilled workers and the unskilled workers. The middle class was getting many opportunities to improve their social status. [4] The Victorian Era in Britain was dominated by the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901). [4], The lack of education that the children received resulted in that the fate of their lives was decided before they even became an adult ("Victorian Era Social Class"). Even though she had a physical disability, she still was able to overcome this and become a respectable Victorian women traveler. During that period many things flourished such as the school and political or religious movements. [4] In the Victorian era women were to get married to a man of the same or a better social status, be good wives, and be a mother to her husband's children. Four main classes existed: the nobility and gentry at the top of the ladder, trailed by the middle class (often these two are combined to cover the “upper class” in general), and then the “upper” working class, swiftly followed by the poorest of the poor, the “lower” working class (again, these latter two are often combined to form the “lower class” as a whole). [26] About 3% of all white women during the Victorian era and 25% of all black women were part of the working force and worked for wages. [11] By those ages, most working-class couples would have been in employment long enough to have built up some savings. [4], They had a comfortable life, not being exactly poor, with steady jobs and no manual labor involved; however it was a far cry from their previous lives of leisure, and an even further cry from the lives of the lowest class of Victorian women; those of the "lower" working class. [4] Most women want to dress upper class, but the lower classes often have more fun and an easier time creating a costume. [7] [19] These people were the total low of all of society. Another trade which lower class women could turn their hand to was that of domestic service. [14] Men: -Top hats or caps -Frock coat -Victorian shirts -Walking stick or cane -Derbies and bowlers -Pocket watch Women: -Bonnets -Shawls -Clothing from the second handshops -Sewed their own chlothes -Stockings The lower class mostly ate what they grew like the fruits, and vegetables. This carriage was only owned by wealthy upper class gentlemen and being the equivalent to today’s sports car, dignified ladies of status did not ride in them (Crank). She examines the classes’ use of transportation and how the upper class are transported from place to place via coach, carriage or sedan while the middle class, "The professional men and their wives, the shopkeepers and their spouses, and all such people, walked about at considerable peril both night and day (Gaskell, 1)." Women in the upper class, unlike women in the middle class, had no motivation to spend time with the lower classes, so they just stayed within their own respective classes (Johnson). [24] [4], The wealthy Victorian Children and their families lived a much more elegant and privileged life than the poor families lived. It is hard to adequately put into words how bad the conditions were for poor Victorian children. [4] [4] Most women found work in textile or clothing factories under harsh conditions, while others found trades in such things as metals, pottery or laundry. Accounts show that children born into working class families felt that their mother was the best mother of all. - Although they didn't have the most pleasant jobs, most factory workers were still able to provide the basic amenities such as food. TOSHER. Social class and values in the Victorian Era Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The Industrial Revolution was beneficial to the middle class, but created a lot of problems for the lower class. [4] After the New Poor Act, most women were pronounced "able-bodied" and were forced to move alongside with the other lower class men, like in the factories of this time. [5] [4] [4] The white industrialized European was place at the top of a racial and social hierarchy and supported program enacted during the Victorian era to "civilize" colonial subjects through increased exposure to Victorian culture and literature, namely through education programs that place English literature on a pedestal that taught British moral values. http://world-history-education-resources.com/victorian-era/era-lower-victorian-class.html, http://victorian-era.org/victorian-poor-and-middle-class.html, https://www.bartleby.com/essay/The-Lower-Class-In-The-Victorian-Era-PJE5J46LYQR, https://www.answers.com/Q/Lower_class_in_the_Victorian_era, http://www.victorianweb.org/gender/wojtczak/lower.html, https://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8246102_class-differences-victorian-era.html, https://www.bl.uk/victorian-britain/articles/the-working-classes-and-the-poor, http://www.historyisnowmagazine.com/blog/2014/4/21/how-the-other-half-lived-rich-and-poor-women-in-victorian-britain, https://www.coursef.com/lower-class-victorian-era-food, https://fashionfromthevictorianera.weebly.com/who-wore-what.html, https://community.dur.ac.uk/4schools.resources/victoriandurham/home8.html, https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/503221/10-worst-jobs-victorian-era, https://sites.google.com/site/thevictorianmiddleclass/, https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z3x39j6/revision/4, https://bellatory.com/fashion-industry/Mens-Clothing-of-the-Late-Victorian-Era, https://www.ukessays.com/essays/history/a-persons-social-class-during-victorian-england-history-essay.php, https://sites.udel.edu/britlitwiki/education-literacy-and-publishing-in-victorian-england/, https://sites.google.com/site/thevictorianmiddleclass/clothing-and-fashion, https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Upper-Class-Middle-Class-And-The-Working-PASC5E6LZQ6, https://www.pinterest.com/victorianeracla/lower-class/, http://world-history-education-resources.com/victorian-era/era-social-classes-victorian.html, https://listverse.com/2016/05/03/10-facts-about-prostitution-in-the-victorian-era/, https://www.betterhelp.com/advice/morality/an-overview-of-victorian-morality/, https://victorianchildren.org/victorian-food/, Joliet Junior College North Ca… courses. [4] Some credited the change in silhouette to the Victorian dress reform, which consisted of a few movements including the Aesthetic Costume Movement and the Rational Dress Movement in the mid-to-late Victorian Era advocating natural silhouette, lightweight underwear, and rejecting tightlacing. The lower class contained men, women, and children performing many types of labor, including factory work, seamstressing, chimney sweeping, mining, and other jobs. Most of the aristocrats did not need to work in the other classes, but they had received their money from previous generations, who had saved money up for their children to have, so they would never be short of money ("Victorian Era Social Classes"). Very large families were not peculiar in the centuries before birth control, with the Victorian Era being no exception. The structure of the novel also reflects the division between classes in the Victorian Era. [6] The Industrial revolution had taken what many would consider to be medium class and left them without jobs. Some wealthy upper middle class usually carried a cane and wore long dark hats. [4] [4] One of the less grim work options for women of this class was to turn to prostitution. by Geoffrey Crossick (Croom Helm, 1977) The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class. [2] Victorian England social hierarchy demonstrates the social class system and the social divisions of England people on certain terms and conditions in a pre-defined specific ladder of pattern. 29 Overall, the Middle Class was one of the better classes to be living in during this era. ("Victorian Era Social Classes"). A surprising aspect of society in the late 1800's is that the wealthy upper class had their own curiosities about how the poor lower class lived. The social classes of this era included the, Victorian England Social Hierarchy. [4] Since the Victorian era was one of increased social mobility, there were ever more nouveaux riches making a rich show. Different Levels of Society Upper Class Upper Middle Class Middle Working Class Working 3. a s s Cl ighH 4. A modified class structure clearly remains in existence today. As a result of that, we have several authors and their popular books that describe life in Victorian society accurately. [2] [26] [6] Well, most Victorian housewives made their children's clothes for they had learnt how to at a very young age, but even still, poor Victorian families had very few outfit. - They couldn't marry anyone outside of their own class - They worked in factories for long hours with little or no break. In the early part of the period, Victorian families were large and nuclear, typically composed of two generations, parents and children. [22] The novel can be viewed as a struggle to maintain upper-class Victorian traditions against the traditions of the lower class. They were ranked below the lower class because they lived in total poverty. Many of the upper class men and women alike would disguise themselves in lower class clothing and head to the slums for a night or two to indulge in the guilty pleasures that could be found in the streets and boarding houses of the slums. [26] Research numerous resources on the world history topics! [4] [19] Dinner: For the upper class, dinner was considered the most colossal meal of the day. The lower class could have worn vests, small coats, or a dark hat. [13], There were three main classes in the Victorian Era: the Aristocrats, the Middle Class, and the Lower Class. [4] Breakfast: To begin their glorious day, the upper class consumed animal proteins such as eggs and bacon (a classic), but also fish, grilled tomatoes, or even deviled kidneys and smoked herring (considered rich British delicacies). During Victorian England, the middle class was the most populated class of all the classes. Working Class Housing (typical inside setting) Fashion WOMEN: - They did not bother to wear tight corsets, as it would only be impractical and slow them down. Men of wealthy Victorian society could look through sporting guides, which were very similar to shopping catalogues. A person's social class during Victorian England determined many things during his or her lifetime, including education, medical treatment, and jobs. Their food was tasteless and consisted of anything that they could afford, their clothes were vastly different from the luxurious outfits of the upper class women - consisting of rag and cheap cloth, and their homes would be cold, dank and dark. [4] [1] The lower class included seamstresses, washerwomen, farm, factory, and mine workers, and domestic servants. Horrible Histories - Victorian Work Song, online video, 6 June 2011, accessed 25 August 2013, < BBC n.d. [3], Victorian London food shopping was handled in the same fashion, although the baker or butcher would brings his food to the servants entrance of the home. [2] There are lots of memoirs written by people who grew up in the Victorian era saying how closely they associated with their servants when they were children and how remote they felt from their own parents. Oscar Wilde expresses the separation of the aristocrats from the middle class during the Victorian Era through the use of three key elements, settings, structure of the novel and characters. Working class life in the Industrial Era Living and working conditions for the Victorian working classes. Their individual days varied according to their role in society, such as upper, middle, and lower class. [23], During the Victorian Era, those in the middle class pushed back against the idea that the right to vote and to hold government office were reserved for the owners of major acreage. - Country people had the opportunity to come out to the city to earn money. [3] The Prostitutes - These women were at the bottom of the society and an enormous debate took place over them during the Victorian era. The conditions were so brutal for the working class that at times children were forced to work away from their parents. [4] [2], The Working Class Of The Victorian Era Positives - The children in the working class received a basic form of education - Sunday school. [4] [14] [17] Even though children were good assistants, there was a downside. During the 1870's, long … The single breasted jacket curved back from just above the waist and displayed the lower part of a waistcoat at the front. If you hate your job now, just thank your lucky stars that you did not work during Victorian times! [12] [4] Their income normally came from the investments made by them or from the inherited lands. [19] [19] At the start of the Victorian era (1830s-1900), English society was highly stratified and hierarchical, and the population fell into three main classes. Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. [15] Rights Reserved. The lower class citizens barely received any education at all, if they received any. [4] With the Victorian Era, it was the rise of the social classes and highlighting their way of life, especially with the Middle Class. [1], This class was incorporated in England’s social system during Victorian era. Image courtesy of www.eriding.net (Click on image to enlarge.) Royal Class - This include people from royal family and the spiritual lords of that time. [4] As easy as it is to romanticize this period, especially given the push toward arts, a more gentile and sentimentalized way of life, and the stirrings of a more liberal type of politics, we must also remember the vast divides in lifestyle, and gender and class equality. [10], The middle class population was the people who did the "clean" work and were paid monthly or annually. Women of the upper class, middle class, working class, and lower class were more prevalent in America. In the Victorian Era, the Middle Class flourished because of the development of industrialization. [3], Many people considered the rich to be middle class if they did not have anything to do with royalty. This working class was further categorised as the skilled workers and the unskilled workers.Due to the revolution, the industrial workers got jobs thus improving their living conditions. 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